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in media res

In Medias Res Examples and Use in Narrative

In this era of smartphones, a very tough war is fought to get our attention (and sell us something). So, as writers, we, too, have to grab the attention of our readers from the very first lines of our story.

To achieve this, an ancient but always effective storytelling technique is In Medias Res.

By starting a story in the middle of the action, the reader or viewer is instantly drawn into the narrative, eager to discover how the events unfold. It creates a sense of urgency and curiosity, compelling the audience to keep reading or watching.

This article explores In Medias Res examples and their use in the narrative.

In Medias Res meaning and history

What does In Medias Res mean? It literally means “in the midst of things.” It was coined by Orace (65 – 8 a.C.) in his Ars Poetica.

Orace in an imaginary portrait by Giacomo Di Chirico - What does medias res mean? "In media res" is a Latin phrase that literally translates to "in the midst of things." "In res media" is a variation of the phrase. The definition of "in media res" emphasizes the storytelling approach of diving into the heart of the plot, creating intrigue and curiosity about what happened before and what will happen next.
Orace in an imaginary portrait by Giacomo Di Chirico

It’s a narrative technique that involves starting a story in the middle of the action or at a crucial point rather than at the beginning.


What is In Medias Res?

In Medias Res means starting a story in the middle of action. This technique grabs the audience’s attention, and details about preceding events are later revealed through flashbacks or explanations, often building suspense in the narrative.

The use of In Medias Res can be traced back to ancient Greek and Roman literature. We can find the first In Medias Res examples in epic poems such as Homer’sIliad” and “Odyssey.”

It continued to be utilized throughout the centuries, with notable examples in Shakespeare’s plays and the works of renowned authors like Virginia Woolf and Ernest Hemingway.

Even today, this technique is commonly used in literature, film, and other forms of storytelling to create intrigue, captivate the audience, and maintain their interest throughout the narrative.

Plunging the audience directly into the story’s heart, In Medias Res sets the stage for a thrilling and engaging storytelling experience.

The benefits of using In Medias Res in storytelling

Using In Medias Res in storytelling offers several benefits:

  1. Immediate engagement. By starting in the middle of the action, you immediately engage your audience and create a sense of anticipation. This can be particularly effective in genres that rely on suspense and mystery.
  2. Enhanced pacing. In Medias Res allows you to maintain a fast-paced narrative, keeping the audience hooked and eager to find out what happens next. This can prevent a story from stagnating or losing the audience’s interest.
  3. Gradual revelation of backstoryIn Medias Res allows for the progressive unveiling of character stories and development as the audience pieces together the events leading up to the current moment. This adds depth and complexity to the storytelling, making it more engaging.
  4. Exploration of non-linear narrativesIn Medias Res opens the doors to explore non-linear narratives, flashbacks, and other unconventional storytelling techniques. This can add layers of complexity and depth to your story, making it more intriguing and memorable.

Tips for incorporating In Medias Res into your storytelling

Here are some tips to help you effectively incorporate In Medias Res technique in your storytelling:

  1. Start with a compelling scene. Choose a scene that grabs the audience’s attention and sets the tone for the rest of the story. This could be a moment of conflict, a pivotal decision, or a significant event that will hook the audience from the beginning.
  2. Provide context gradually. While starting in the middle of the action, it’s essential to provide enough context and backstory to help the audience understand the significance of the events. Gradually reveal the necessary information through dialogue, flashbacks, or other narrative devices.
  3. Maintain narrative momentum: Once you’ve captured the audience’s attention with an exciting opening, it’s crucial to maintain the momentum throughout the story. Keep the pacing tight, introduce new conflicts and challenges, and continuously engage the audience with unexpected twists and turns.
  4. Balance exposition and action. As you gradually reveal the events leading up to the present moment, find a balance between providing necessary exposition and maintaining a sense of action and momentum. Too much exposition can slow the pacing, while too little may confuse the audience.

To start in the middle of a story avoids the problem of how to begin.

John Steinbeck

Common mistakes to avoid when using the In Medias Res technique

While In Medias Res can be a powerful narrative technique, there are some common mistakes to avoid.

  1. Lack of clarity. Ensure your audience can understand the context and follow the story even when starting in the middle of the action. Provide enough information to orient them without overwhelming them with exposition.
  2. Overuse of flashbacks. While flashbacks can be useful for revealing backstories, relying too heavily on them can disrupt the narrative flow. Use flashbacks sparingly and ensure they serve a purpose in advancing the story.
  3. Neglecting character development. Starting in the middle of the action doesn’t mean neglecting character development. Take the time to explore your characters’ motivations, desires, and conflicts, even as you dive into the story’s heart.

In Medias Res examples in literature and film

Numerous literary works and films have successfully employed this technique to captivate their audiences. Here are some In Medias Res examples.

F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby“. The novel starts with the protagonist, Nick Carraway, attending a party at Gatsby’s mansion. It throws the reader directly into the lavish and mysterious world of the story. By starting In Medias Res, Fitzgerald creates an immediate sense of intrigue. It sets the tone for the rest of the novel.

Joseph Heller’s “Catch-22″. The novel starts in the middle of the story, immersing the reader into World War II’s chaotic and absurd world. The fragmented narrative structure mirrors the confusion and disorientation experienced by the characters, creating a powerful and thought-provoking reading experience.

Orson Welles’ “Citizen Kane”. The movie begins with the death of the titular character, Charles Foster Kane. It then explores his life through a series of flashbacks and interviews. This non-linear structure adds depth and complexity to the story. It allows the audience to piece together the puzzle of Kane’s life.

Christopher Nolan’s “Memento“. The movie begins with the main character, Leonard Shelby, waking up after suffering a head injury. This immediately immerses the audience in his disoriented and fragmented state of mind. Through a non-linear narrative structure, the film gradually reveals the events leading up to the present moment. This keeps the audience engaged and guessing until the very end.

Use In Media Res Effectively with bibisco’s novel writing features

Explore the narrative technique of In Media Res with the assistance of bibisco novel writing software. Designed for writers, bibisco’s features empower you to seamlessly incorporate this technique into your storytelling.

bibisco's chapters' section - in medias res definition and examples.
bibisco’s chapters section

With intuitive tools and an organized approach, bibisco becomes your ally in crafting engaging narratives that captivate readers from the very beginning.


In Medias Res is a powerful narrative technique that can transform your storytelling by immediately capturing your audience’s attention and creating a sense of excitement and anticipation.

By starting your story in the middle of the action, you can engage your readers or viewers from the very beginning and maintain their interest throughout.

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