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What is a Frame Narrative | Frame Story and Framing Device

The concept of frame narrative or frame story dates back to ancient times.

One of the earliest examples can be found in “The Arabian Nights,” also known as “One Thousand and One Nights.”

This collection of Middle Eastern folk tales features a frame story where Scheherazade tells the king stories for one thousand and one nights to save her life. Each night, she ends the story on a cliffhanger, ensuring that the king spares her life to hear the rest of the tale.

Frame Narrative meaning

Let’s start with the definition of Frame Narrative.


What is a Frame Narrative?

A frame narrative is a storytelling technique in which a main narrative or story serves as a framework for one or more secondary narratives or stories. These secondary narratives are often told by characters within the main story or are somehow related to it. Frame narratives add complexity and depth to the storytelling by providing different perspectives or layers of storytelling within the overarching framework.

A frame story is a narrative structure where a story within a story is told. It acts as a framework that surrounds and supports the main narrative.

The outer story, or the frame, provides context and sets the stage for the inner story, which is often the primary focus.

The frame story can be a prologue, an epilogue, or even a series of interludes that connect the different parts of the main story.

The purpose and benefits of using Frame Story in storytelling

Using a frame story in storytelling serves several purposes and offers numerous benefits.

  1. Create a more complex and layered narrative. By incorporating multiple stories or perspectives within a single work, the author can explore different themes and ideas in a more nuanced way. This can result in a richer and more engaging narrative experience for the audience.
  2. Create a sense of unity and coherence. The author can establish a thematic or emotional thread that ties everything together by connecting different stories or episodes through a common frame. This can result in a more cohesive and impactful narrative.
  3. Provide a sense of mystery and suspense. Introducing the main story within a larger frame leaves the audience with questions and anticipation. This can create a sense of intrigue and keep the audience hooked throughout the entire narrative.

Exploring the different types of Framing Devices

Various types of narrative framing can be used in a frame story.

  1. “Story within a story” structure. This is where the main narrative is interrupted to tell a separate story, which is usually related to the main plot in some way. This can be seen in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher”, where the narrator listens to the story of the Usher family’s curse within the larger framework of the crumbling mansion.
  2. “Nested story” structure. This is when multiple layers of storytelling are nested within each other, like a set of Russian dolls. Each story within the larger frame adds a new layer of depth and complexity to the narrative. A famous example of this is Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness,” where the main narrator recounts the story of Marlow, who in turn tells the story of his journey into the heart of Africa.
  3. Diaries and letters. This provides a unique framing device by presenting the story through the personal accounts of the characters. Framing a story through diaries or letters can provide an intimate and personal perspective. “Dracula” by Bram Stoker utilizes diary entries and letters to tell the story of the vampire’s encounters with various characters.
  4. Retelling a story. This framing device involves a frame narrator retelling a story they have heard from someone else. This can add an element of mystery and uncertainty. “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald is an example where the story is narrated by Nick Carraway, who recounts the events surrounding Jay Gatsby.

Analyzing the structure and elements of a Frame Story

To effectively use a frame story, it’s important to understand its structure and elements. Let’s delve into the key components that make up a frame story:

  1. The frame. It is the outer narrative that provides context and sets the stage for the inner story. It can be a prologue, an epilogue, or even a series of interludes that connect the different parts of the main story.
  2. The inner story: The main narrative that is enveloped within the frame. It can explore different themes, characters, and settings and is often the primary focus of the storytelling.
  3. The connection: The link between the frame and the inner story. This can be a common theme, a character, or a plot device that ties everything together and adds coherence to the narrative.
  4. The transitions: The seamless transitions between the frame and the inner story. These transitions should be smooth and natural, ensuring a cohesive reading or viewing experience for the audience.
  5. The purpose: The reason for using a frame story in the first place. It can be to create suspense, provide context, add depth, or explore different perspectives and themes.

How to effectively use Frame Narrative in your writing

Now that we have explored the frame story concept and analyzed its structure and elements, let’s discuss how you can effectively use this narrative technique in your writing.

  1. Plan your frame story. Before you start writing, take the time to plan out your frame story. Consider the purpose and theme of your main narrative and how the frame can enhance and support it. This will help you create a clear and cohesive structure for your story.
  2. Create intriguing openings and closings. The beginning and ending of your frame story should be compelling and intriguing. They should hook the audience and make them want to delve deeper into the main narrative. Consider using cliffhangers, mysteries, or thought-provoking questions to captivate your readers or viewers.
  3. Balance the frame and the inner story. It’s important to strike a balance between the frame and the inner story. While the frame provides context and sets the stage, the inner story should be the focal point. Ensure that the frame doesn’t overshadow or detract from the main narrative.
  4. Seamless transitions. Pay attention to the transitions between the frame and the inner story. They should be seamless and natural, allowing the audience to move effortlessly between the different layers of storytelling. Avoid abrupt shifts or jarring changes that can disrupt the narrative flow.
  5. Utilize the frame to enhance themes and emotions. The frame story can be a powerful tool for emphasizing themes, exploring emotions, or adding depth to your main narrative. Use the frame to create a thematic or emotional thread that runs through the entire story, connecting the different parts and resonating with your audience.

“Since the beginning of the world men have been and will be, until the end thereof, bandied about by various shifts of fortune”

Giovanni Boccaccio

Write your story with bibisco’s novel writing software

Exploring the technique of the frame narrative is a fascinating way to enrich your storytelling, and bibisco novel writing software is here to make the process more accessible and effective.

With its features tailored for writers, bibisco provides you with tools to create and leverage the narrative structure of a frame story. You can organize your narrative elements, define your characters, and develop both the main story and its framing.

bibisco's architecture section.  
Explore Frame story definition and frame story meaning in this blog article.
bibisco’s architecture section

Discover how bibisco can enhance your writing, enabling you to experiment and master the frame narrative technique in your literary work.


The Frame Story is a powerful narrative technique that adds depth and complexity to storytelling.

Frame Story provides a framework that enhances the main narrative’s overall meaning and impact, while allowing for a more complex and layered storytelling experience. It engages the reader or viewer, evokes emotional connection, and creates a sense of anticipation and suspense.

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